Monkey trails against Nipah virus- ‘Success’
Can a Covishield-type vaccine protect against Nipah virus? The first results from animal experiments seem to indicate this. In July, researchers from the Jenner Institute, the University of Oxford, and the US National Institutes of Health reported that the ChadOx1 vaccine vector, when adapted to the Nipah virus, provided vervet monkeys and monkeys with full protection. Africans, a kind of primacy.
There is still no approved vaccine against the deadly Nipah virus, which killed a 12-year-old boy in Kozhikode, Kerala. A virus outbreak in the state in 2018 killed 17 out of 18 people confirmed to have the virus.
The study appears on bioRxiv's preprint server, which indicates that it has not yet been subjected to an expert review. ChAdOx1 is a versatile vaccine vector, which means it can be modified to carry DNA from a wide variety of pathogens. The version of ChAdOx1 that goes into human arms like Covishield or AstraZeneca is ChAdOx1 with a piece of Sarscov2 spike protein.
For the Nipah study, scientists uploaded a piece of glycoprotein from a strain of the Nipah virus found in Bangladesh, where epidemics occur every year. This test vaccine was named ChadOx1 NiV for the study.
8 selected monkeys
A group of four monkeys received two or one injections of ChadOx1NiV and another group of four received injections of a dummy protein (ChAdOx1 GFP), which in turn was vectorized by ChAdOx1. All eight were then "challenged" or artificially infected with the real Nipah virus, some through the nose and others through the throat.
The unvaccinated group showed symptoms of disease within three days and was euthanized within 5-7 days after being confirmed to have severe disease. In contrast, the vaccinated animals showed no disease.
Throat and nasal swabs from all unvaccinated animals showed evidence of virus replication, while swabs from a single vaccinated animal showed such virus detection. "These data suggest that the vaccine could provide nearly complete protective immunity in African green monkeys," the researchers report in their study, "if the next pandemic of a member of the genus Henipavirus [which includes Nipah virus] is triggered." the current study could have an impact on the development of a rapid vaccine. "
The monkey study follows a study conducted by the Syrian hamster group. Encouraging studies in primates pave the way for experiments in humans. The group's work on developing a Middle East Respiratory Virus (MERS) vaccine and testing it in rhesus monkeys paved the way for the development of the AstraZeneca vaccine, one of the first vaccines approved.
Hendra virus vaccine
While several vaccine candidates have been evaluated in animal models, only one has been approved for studies in humans. HeV-sG, a soluble form of HeV receptor binding glycoprotein, was developed by Zoetis, Inc. and marketed in Australia as an equine vaccine against Hendra virus, which is of the same genus as Nipah virus.
HeV-sG vaccination protects African monkeys against the deadly NiV disease just seven days after vaccination. As of March 2020, it was reported that recruitment had started in a randomized phase I placebo-controlled clinical trial, the first of its kind, with results expected in October.
Sources:- the Hindu
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