The Demon King, Ravana was the eldest son of Rishi Vishrava and Rakshasi Kaikeshi. He had forcefully taken Rama's wife Sita to his Kingdom Lanka. He had kept Sita in Ashok Vatika as a prisoner, to take revenge for his sister’s pride, Surpanakha. Later, Rama with the support of Vanara’s King Sugriv and his army of Vanara, attacked Lanka and defeated Ravana.
Despite being an evil and Demon King, Ravana was a great scholar. He had mastered the six shastras and the four Vedas. And a great devotee of Shiva.He is also mentioned in Buddhist Mahayana texts like the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, Buddhist Ramayanas and Jatakas, and Jain Ramayanas. He is described as one of Vishnu's cursed doorkeepers in several scriptures.
The word Ravana means means "roaring" (active) in sanskrit, the opposite of the other son of Rishi Vishrava, Vaiśravaṇa, meaning "hear distinctly" (passive).
Some of the popular names of Ravana are Dasis Ravana, Dasis Sakvithi Maha Ravana, Dashaanan, Ravula, Lankapati, Lankeshwar, Lankeshwaran, Ravanasura, Ravanaeshwaran, and Eela Vendhar.
Dashānana means "screamer" in Sanskrit, Ravana was a great devotee of Shiva, the creator of Shiva Tandav Stotram. Ravana is shown and described as having ten heads, yet he is occasionally depicted with only nine due to the fact that he cut one off to convince Shiva.
Ravana was born in Tretra Yuga, and he was the son of Sage Vishrava (or Vesamuni), and his wife, the Rakshasa princess Kaikesi. There are many views and thoughts on the Demon King Ravana Birthplace. Residents of Bisrakh village, Uttar Pradesh claim that Ravana was born there as the place named after his father Vishrava. But according to Hela historical sources and folklore, Ravana was born in Lanka, where he later became king.
Ravana was the Grandson of Sage Pulastya, who was the mind-born son of Brahma and one of the Saptarishi. His maternal Grandfather was the king of Demons, Sumali who had 4 daughters and 10 sons. He wanted his daughter to marry the most powerful being. After years of search, Kaikesi, the mother of Ravana, chose Vishrava, the father of Kubera.They completed their education from their father, with Ravana being a great scholar of the Vedas.
Ravana and his two brothers Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana had performed tapasya for 11,000 years to get Vardan from Brahma. Except for humans, Ravana was granted a blessing that made him invincible to Brahma's creation.
Ravana had created the Shiva Tandav Stotram for Lord Shiva. There is a story that once, Ravana wanted Lord Shiva to come with him to Lanka. Lord Shiva refused to leave Kailash, seeing that Ravana had tried to lift the Kailash Mountain but Shiva pushed the mountain with his toe and imprisoned Ravana under it. After a thousand years, the Demon King Ravana sang hymns in praise of Shiva. Lord Shiva finally blessed him and granted him an invincible sword and a powerful linga (Shiva's an iconic symbol, Atmalinga) to worship
Ravana had seven brothers and two sisters:
Ravana was married to Mandodari, the daughter of the celestial architect Maya, Dhanyamalini, and a third wife. His sons from his three wives were as follows:
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